Hairy annual herbs, stems erect or decumbent, downwardly pilose. Leaves 13-pinnate or -pinnatisect, ultimate segments ovate-lanceolate, acute. Umbels compound; bracts and bracteoles linear. Flowers hermaphrodite, or the inner ones sometimes male. Calyx teeth minute. Petals obovate with an acute incurved apex, slightly irregular, scarcely radiant. Stylopodium broadly conical; styles short, spreading. Fruit ovoid, subterete, the primary and secondary ribs obscured by spines or bristles.
Torilis japonica (Houttuyn) DC.
Bhutan: CHa district (Ha),
Thimphu district (Raidak Valley, Taba, Thimphu), Bumthang district (Shabaejetang)
and Mongar district (Mongar).
Ecology: A common weed around
houses, field margins, meadows, roadsides and waste ground, etc. 12003050m.
Specimen List 
Torilis leptophylla (L.) Reichenbach
Similar to T. japonica but peduncles 25cm; rays 34, 0.71.5cm; spines on mericarps spreading 1.52mm, minutely scabrid and subglochidiate.
Note: A well known species occuring in Pakistan and N.W.India, but only reported further east (to Sikkim) in a vague literature citation (Mukherjee, P.K. (1978) A resume of Indian Umbellifers. In A.-M. Cauwet-Marc & J. Carbonnier (Eds) Les Ombellifères: 47-70).
Torilis nodosa (L.) Gaertner
Similar to T. japonica but usually prostrate; umbels sessile or peduncles c 5mm (rarely up to 2.5cm), leaf-opposed; outer or outward facing mericarps covered with spreading spines 1.52mm, inner mericarps tuberculate.
Note: A common European species occasionally introduced into Asia (Japan), only reported from Sikkim in a vague literature citation (Mukherjee, P.K. (1978) A resume of Indian Umbellifers. In A.-M. Cauwet-Marc & J. Carbonnier (Eds) Les Ombellifères: 47-70).